Frequently Asked Questions

‘Upstream’ in the oil and gas industry refers to the exploration and production stages. It includes activities such as geological surveying, drilling, and operating wells, all focused on finding and extracting crude oil and natural gas from underground or underwater fields.

A working interest refers to the rights to explore, drill, and produce oil and gas from a leasehold. It involves the costs and liabilities associated with drilling and production. A royalty interest, on the other hand, grants a share of the production or revenue from a lease, free of the costs associated with exploration and production.

Oil and gas prices are influenced by a variety of factors, including global supply and demand, geopolitical events, economic growth trends, technological advancements, and market speculations.

Upstream operations can have environmental impacts, including air and water pollution, habitat disruption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Many companies have increasingly prioritized mitigation efforts and are investing in more sustainable and efficient technologies to lessen these impacts.

In the dynamic world of oil and gas ventures, both operated working interest and non-operating interest offer unique opportunities and differing levels of participation.


Non-operating interest, or non-working interest, presents an appealing option for those seeking a stake in the lucrative oil and gas sector without the obligations tied to daily operations. This form of interest signifies fractional ownership in an oil and gas lease, offering the opportunity to partake in the revenue generated by production. Importantly, this model typically doesn’t burden non-operating interest owners with the costs of drilling or operating the wells. This investment structure inherently mitigates risk, making it an attractive option for those seeking a balance between capital investment and potential return.


While it’s true that a non-operating interest owner might exercise less control over operations and see less potential for large-scale returns compared to their counterparts holding an operated working interest, the relative security, and steady revenue stream of a non-operating interest could be seen as a positive trade-off. It’s a route that allows investors to tap into the oil and gas industry’s revenue potential without the extensive involvement and liabilities associated with managing well operations

Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is a process that involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals into a well under high pressure to create fractures in the rock formation. This allows oil or gas to flow more freely from the well, improving extraction rates.

Typically prior to total depletion a variety of production increasing strategies are utilized for total recovery before deciding to plug and abandon the well in accordance with regulatory requirements to ensure environmental safety. The site is then typically reclaimed, which may involve restoring vegetation, removing infrastructure, and monitoring for any environmental impacts.

Determining the feasibility of reworking a well involves a multifaceted evaluation encompassing technical, economic, and regulatory aspects. First, the company scrutinizes the well’s technical health, including wellbore integrity, the status of completion components, and the condition of the surface infrastructure, along with data about remaining reserves. Then, an economic analysis is performed, where reworking costs are weighed against anticipated revenue from increased production post-rework. Regulatory compliance is another key factor, ensuring the planned rework abides by environmental, safety, and permit regulations. Should these elements favorably align, and provided the risks associated with reworking, such as potential well control issues, are acceptably managed, the company may choose to proceed with the rework operation.

A Joint Operating Agreement (JOA) is a fundamental legal document in the oil and gas industry that outlines the roles, responsibilities, and obligations of multiple parties involved in the exploration and production of a lease. This contractual arrangement typically exists between one operating party, who oversees the daily management and operations of the lease, and one or several non-operating parties. The JOA delineates the ownership interest of each party, the allocation of profits and costs, the procedure for decision-making, dispute resolution mechanisms, and provisions for potential scenarios such as the transfer of interest or termination of the agreement. Thus, a JOA serves as a blueprint for cooperation, aiming to minimize conflicts and ensure smooth operations.

Purchasing non-operating interests in Proved Developed Producing (PDP) reserves in the oil and gas industry can provide substantial tax advantages. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States allows investors to deduct certain costs associated with oil and gas investments, notably through a mechanism called depletion allowance. The depletion allowance serves as a tax-deductible expense, recognizing that oil and gas reserves are depleting assets. This tax advantage effectively lowers the taxable income from the investment. For non-operating interest owners, this can result in significant savings, considering that they receive income from production without bearing the operational costs. Furthermore, under certain conditions, a portion of the income may qualify as passive income, which can provide additional tax benefits. As with all tax matters, it’s important to consult with a tax advisor to fully understand the potential tax advantages and implications.

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